Last updated by The POOG on January 27, 2021.

Apart from hydroxychloroquine, there are a number other therapeutics that have come to prominence, some effective and some not. In this article, we discuss some of them.

Lysosomotropic Drugs

With a goal of repurposing of existing drugs, a study of 530 lysosomotropic compounds identified 36 with potential anti-viral properties. Of these, 14 of them showing evidence of broad-spectrum antiviral activity are already under study or in use[38].

The action of alkalinizing lysosomotropic drugs has been studied extensively[38][39][40][41]]. Drugs studied include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, amodiaquine, azithromycin[41], bafilomycin A1, fluoxetine and chlorpromazine[40].

Video deleted by YouTube.

Vitamin D

Over recent years, Vitamin D has been found to have an efficacy in preventing or treating a wide range of diseases and disorders. We will not explore the topic here since our focus is on COVID-19. For a general discussion of Vitamin D which is quite extensive but readable and cites original research, read the article by Adda Bjarnadotti[13].

Garvin et al (2020)[1] list vitamin D as a potential therapeutic in treating COVID-19 patients. Israel et al (2020)[2] in a study observed “a highly significant correlation between prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and Covid-19 incidence“.

A stronger analog of vitamin D, calcifediol, was used in a clinical trial. The r

pilot study demonstrated that administration of calcifediol may improve the clinical outcome of subjects requiring hospitalization for COVID-19.

Castillo (2020)[3]

Calcifediol[5] does have side effects[4].

Gene studies by Glinsky found that

… vitamin D and quercetin have been identified as putative 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mitigation agents. Quercetin has been identified as one of top-scoring candidate therapeutics in the supercomputer SUMMIT drug-docking screen and Gene Set Enrichment Analyses

There are several other studies that demonstrate the efficacy of Vitamin D both as a prophylactic and for reducing the severity of infections[6][7][8][42].

Dr. Chris Martenson gave a good discussion on vitamin D in a September video:

Vitamin D: A Powerful Bullet Against COVID

In an October video he discussed recent findings that Vitamin D reduces mortality risk by 89%.

Vitamin D Reduces Mortality Risk by -89%

Next is a chart showing the relationship between Vitamin D levels and disease severity:

Source: DollarCollapse.com and GrassrootsHealth Nutrient Research Institute.

The following video gives the best explanation of what Vitamin D3 is, how it works, and its correlation with COVID-19 infection and mortality. It discussess a number of important papers on Vitamin D3 and particularly how low serum levels of 25(OH)D, the metabolized form of D3 correlates to increased infection rates and mortality.

Vitamin D and COVID 19: The Evidence for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus (SARS CoV 2)

This is a very professional analysis of the efficacy of Vitamin D3 based on scientific studies. I take 5000IU daily. You should too, more if your BMI is high. Consult your doctor but only if he/she has done their homework on the topic.

Dosage and Side Effects

The Mayo Clinic describes a rare side effect of too high Vitamin D level[12]:

Vitamin D toxicity, also called hypervitaminosis D, is a rare but potentially serious condition that occurs when you have excessive amounts of vitamin D in your body.

Vitamin D toxicity is usually caused by large doses of vitamin D supplements — not by diet or sun exposure.

The main consequence of vitamin D toxicity is a buildup of calcium in your blood (hypercalcemia)

Source: Mayo Clinic[12]

They cite a study using 60,000 IU a day over several months as causing the severe response. The RDA, according to them is 600 IU.

The problem with recommended dosages is that they are general. Every individual absorbs and process all vitamins differently. With vitamin D where there is natural bodily generation due to sun exposure, the individual’s blood serum levels will vary. It is this latter number that is important. Bjarnadotti[13] gives the recommended ranges as:

  • Sufficient: 20–30 ng/ml, or 50–75 nmol/L.
  • Safe upper limit: 60 ng/ml, or 150 nmol/L.
  • Toxic: Above 150 ng/mL, or 375 nmol/L.

In one individual, 5000 IU daily produced a serum level of 46 ng/ml a month after the winter solstice. This is midway between the sufficient and safe upper levels. The calculator in the following section may be helpful to you.

There is not a lot of data on a recommended prophylactic dose for COVID-19 and sources vary considerably from around 2000 IU per day an up. COVID.US.org cites studies that recommend 5000 IU as a maintenance dose[14].

Vitamin D Links

Calculator

Converts nmol/L to ng/mL: Vitamin D total. Also, Vitamin D*calculator™.

Ivermectin

What has become the best drug for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 is the drug Ivermetin. There are a number of good, short descriptions of Ivermectin, its properties and uses[19][20].

Chris Martenson discusses an Egyptian study of its efficacy starting at about the 11:10 minute mark. His original video was censored on both YouTube and Vimeo but he has it on his site at https://www.peakprosperity.com/censored-most-recent-covid-video-banned-by-youtube/. Both videos are about the same length but the one on his website that I can’t embed here is better.

The paper by Elgazzar et al (2020)[32] that Martenson references tested the effect of Ivermectin and hydroxychloroquin on two groups each of mild-moderate and severe cases. Table 4 in their report shows a much better improvement with Ivermectin than HCQ alone, 99% to74% and 94% to 50%.

Next is an impassioned plea for Ivermectin from a hugely qualified medical specialist, Dr. Pierre Kory. It acts as a prophylactic and at all stages of an infection. As a note, this interview goes against the interests of Big Pharma and the official narrative of public health authorities. YouTube censors have removed it once. It may go again.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CuHq12B_Tvk&feature=emb_logo
Dr. Pierre Kory (FLCCC Alliance) testifies to senate committee about I-MASK+

Studies and Clinical Trials

In this section we review a few of the studies and references that we have come across concerning the use of Ivermectin to fight SARS-CoV-2.

The first is a reference to an in vitrio (cell culture) trial that “reduces the number of cell-associated viral RNA by 99.8 % in 24 hours[17]“. This is the first stage of drug testing and is done before human trials. This is an extremely encouraging result.

A study by Behera et al (2020) found that (emphasis added):

Two-dose ivermectin prophylaxis at a dose of 300 μg/kg with a gap of 72 hours was associated 73% reduction of COVID-19 infection among healthcare workers for the following one-month.

Source: Beheraa et al (2020)[22]

A meta study by Covid Analysis (2020) of 24 single studies found that:

•Ivermectin is effective for COVID-19. 100% of studies report positive effects. The probability that an ineffective treatment generated results as positive as the 24 studies to date is estimated to be 1 in 17 million (p = 0.00000006).

Early treatment is most successful, with an estimated reduction of 87% in the effect measured using a random effects meta-analysis, RR 0.13 [0.04-0.51].

100% of the 10 Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) report positive effects, with an estimated reduction of 74% in the effect measured using a random effects meta-analysis, RR 0.26 [0.12-0.56].

Source: Covid Analysis (2020)[23]

A meta study by Kory et al (2020)[25] concluded:

the FLCCC recommends that ivermectin should be used in both the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19.51 In the presence of a global COVID-19 surge, the widespread use of this safe, inexpensive, and effective intervention could lead to a drastic reduction in transmission rates as well as the morbidity and mortality in mild, moderate, and even severe disease phases.

Condensed Summary of the Emerging Evidence Supporting the Use of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19.

In the following viddeo, Dr. Mobeen Syed explains the data in a number of studies on Ivermectin:

Heidary and Gharebaghi (2020) review the literature for the antiviral properties of Ivermectin and find it is widely efficacious[30].

The results from all studies covered assign a high efficacy to Ivermectin for all stages of SARS-CoV-2 infections as well as prophylaxis. More studies can be found at the US NIH[29].

Dosage

The US NIH has provided new treatment guidelines for Ivermectin[36][37].

Dosage is based on body weight. It has thirty years or more of use in the field as an anti-parastitic drug similar to hydroxychloroquin[18][21].

Side Effects

All reported side effects experienced are mild not requiring medical attention. A single more serious but not life-threatening effect has been noted in the treatment of river blindness (onchocerciasis) only[16][20]. This effect is due to the body’s elimination of dead parasites.

Andrographis

This is on my research list. Start with this video:

Quercetin

Melatonin

[34]

Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid that prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. Inflationary of the alveoli in the lungs by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is responsible for hypoxia and damage done in severe cases. Corticosteroids have proven to be an effective treatment for severe and late stage COVID-19 infections.

Convalescent Plasma Antibody

Using antibodies extracted from the plasma of recovered victims has some degree of efficacy in treating SARS-CoV-2 infections. One study of patients not on ventilators found that higher rather than lower antibody levels in plasma lowered the risk of death[35].

Blood Thinners

They have some efficacy in treating SARS-CoV-2 infections[43].

Remdesivir

A study by the World Health Organization[9][10] has found that Remdesivir is ineffective in treating late-stage SARS-CoV-2 infections. Despite this, the FDA in the US has approved its use[11].

Fasting

Fasting has been known to strengthen the immune system and promote autophagy for cleaning up cellular debris. Animal trials indicate that it promotes longevity. Hannan et al (2020)[33] are suggesting that fasting, although not a therapeutic agent, may be a form of prophylaxis that can be used against a SARS-CoV-2 infection.

As a healthy practice, calorie restriction in the form of intermittent fasting (IF) in several clinical settings has been reported to promote several health benefits, including priming of the immune response. This dietary restriction also activates autophagy, a cell surveillance system that boosts up immunity. With these prevailing significance in priming host defense, IF could be a potential strategy amid this outbreak to fighting off SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Hannan et al (2020)[33]

Recommended Protocols Using Generic Pharmaceuticals

The following are recommended protocols for use of these pharmaceuticals for preventing or treating SARS-CoV-2 infections. Hannan et al are proposing that

The FLCCC Alliance has a pair of protocols[26], I-MASK+: Prophylaxis & early outpatient treat­ment for COVID-19 and MATH+ Protocol: Hospital Treatment Protocol for COVID-19. Their analysis of other studies published to date has lead them to recommend Ivermectin for all stages of infection plus prophylaxis.

The Eastern Virginia Medical School has a treatment protocol called the Critical Care COVID-19 Management [Marik] Protocol. In the following video, Dr. Marik discusses the application, action and benefit of a number of the established pharmaceuticals in the treatment of the various stages of the SARS-CoV-2 infection:

Australia has released a Triple Therapy Protocol for COVID-19 using Ivermectin + zinc + an antibiotic[27]. This is similar to the triple therapy for HCQ.

Swiss Policy Research (SPR) Collaboration has a COVID-19 treatment protocol using a variety of common pharmaceuticals and supplements[28].

References

  1. Garvin, M.R., Alvarez, C., Miller, J.I., et al. A mechanistic model and therapeutic interventions for COVID-19 involving a RAS-mediated bradykinin storm. Elife. 2020 Jul 7;9:e59177. doi: 10.7554/eLife.59177.
  2. Ariel Israel, Assi Albert Cicurel, Ilan Feldhamer, et al. (2020). The link between vitamin D deficiency and Covid-19 in a large population. medRxiv preprint, doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.04.20188268.
  3. Castillo, M.E. , Costa, L.M.E., Barrios, J.M.V., et al.Effect of Calcifediol Treatment and best Available Therapy versus best Available Therapy on Intensive Care Unit Admission and Mortality Among Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19: A Pilot Randomized Clinical study. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2020 Aug 29;105751. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751.
  4. Calcifediol Side Effects. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jul 15, 2020.
  5. Calcifediol (Oral Route). Mayo Clinic.
  6. William B Grant, Henry Lahore, Sharon L McDonnell, et al. Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths. Nutrients. 2020 Apr 2;12(4):988. DOI: 10.3390/nu12040988.
  7. Patrick Zemb, Peter Bergman, Carlos A Camargo Jr, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and the COVID-19 pandemic. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2020 Sep;22:133-134. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2020.05.006.
  8. Nurshad Ali. Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression and severity. J Infect Public Health. 2020 Jun 20;13(10):1373-1380. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.06.021.
  9. Solidarity Therapeutics Trial produces conclusive evidence on the effectiveness of repurposed drugs for COVID-19 in record time. WHO, 15 October 2020.
  10. Hongchao Pan, Richard Peto, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, et al. Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19 –interim WHO SOLIDARITY trial results. medRxiv, October 15, 2020; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.15.20209817.
  11. FDA Approves Gilead’s Remdesivir To Treat COVID-19 Despite Data Showing Drug Doesn’t Work. Zero Hedge, October 22, 2020.
  12. Katherine Zeratsky. What is vitamin D toxicity? Should I be worried about taking supplements? Mayo Clinic, as of November 24, 2020.
  13. Adda Bjarnadotti. How Much Vitamin D is Too Much? The Surprising Truth. Healthline, June 4, 2017.
  14. Prophylaxis for Covid-19 (prevention protocols). COVID.US.org, September 10, 2020.
  15. Doctors cure 6,000 patients with Covid-19 with Ivermectin. DominicanToday, December 10, 2020.
  16. Ivermectin Side Effects. Drugs.com, updated on May 5, 2020.
  17. Melisa Puckey. Can Ivermectin be used to treat COVID-19 (coronavirus)? Drugs.com, updated Apr 04, 2020.
  18. Philip Thornton. Ivermectin. Drugs.com, updated Apr 08, 2020.
  19. Ivermectin Tablets. Drugs.com, updated Feb 20, 2020.
  20. Ivermectin. WebMD, as of December 12, 2020.
  21. Ivermectin (Oral Route). Mayo Clinic, as of December 12, 2020.
  22. Behera, P., Patro, B.K., Singh, A.K., et al. Role of ivermectin in the prevention of COVID-19 infection among healthcare workers in India: A matched case-control study. medRxiv, 2020.10.29.20222661; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.29.20222661.
  23. Ivermectin is effective for COVID-19: meta analysis of 24 studies. Covid Analysis, November 26, 2020 (Version 4, December 12, 2020).
  24. Doctor explains 99.3% of COVID-19 patients treated with Ivermectin recovered in five days. DominicanToday, November 30, 2020.
  25. Kory, P., Meduri, U., Iglesias, J. et al. Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19. FLCCC Alliance; updated December 7, 2020.
  26. Paul Marik. An overview of the MATH+ and I-MASK+ Protocols: A Guide to the Management of COVID-19. FLCCC Alliance, December 03, 2020.
  27. Ivermectin Triple Therapy Protocol for COVID-19 Released to Australian GPs for Infected Elderly and Frontline Workers. ACN Newswire, August 20, 2020.
  28. On the Treatment of Covid-19. SPR, updated December 10, 2020.
  29. Ivermectin. NIH Clinical Trials, as of December 16, 2020.
  30. Heidary, F., Gharebaghi, R. Ivermectin: a systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen. J Antibiot 73, 593–602 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41429-020-0336-z.
  31. Glinsky GV. Tripartite Combination of Candidate Pandemic Mitigation Agents: Vitamin D, Quercetin, and Estradiol Manifest Properties of Medicinal Agents for Targeted Mitigation of the COVID-19 Pandemic Defined by Genomics-Guided Tracing of SARS-CoV-2 Targets in Human Cells. Biomedicines. 2020 May 21;8(5):129. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines8050129.
  32. Elgazzar A, Hany B, Youssef SA, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin for Treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19 Pandemic. Research Square. November 13, 220. DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-100956/v2.
  33. Hannan A, Rahman A, Rahman S, et al. Intermittent fasting, a possible priming tool for host defense against SARS-CoV-2 infection: Crosstalk among calorie restriction, autophagy and immune response. Immunol Lett. Oct;226:38-45. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2020.07.001. Epub 2020 Jul.
  34. Melatonin.WebMD. As of December 31, 2020.
  35. Joyner MJ, Carter RE, Senefeld JW, et al. Convalescent Plasma Antibody Levels and the Risk of Death from Covid-19. NEJM. January 13, 2021; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2031893.
  36. NIH Revises Treatment Guidelines for Ivermectin for the Treatment of COVID-19. FLCCC. January 15, 2021.
  37. The COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel’s Statement on the Use of Ivermectin for the Treatment of COVID-19. NIH. January 14, 2021.
  38. Pisonero-Vaquero S, Diego Luis DL. MedinaLysosomotropic Drugs: Pharmacological Tools to Study Lysosomal Function. Curr Drug Metab. 2017;18(12):1147-1158. doi: 10.2174/1389200218666170925125940.
  39. Villamil Giraldo AM, Appelqvist H, Ederth T, and Öllinger K. Lysosomotropic agents: impact on lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cell death. Biochem Soc Trans. 2014 Oct;42(5):1460-4. doi: 10.1042/BST20140145.
  40. Lübow C, Bockstiegel J, Weindl G. Lysosomotropic drugs enhance pro-inflammatory responses to IL-1β in macrophages by inhibiting internalization of the IL-1 receptor. Biochem Pharm. Volume 175, May 2020, 113864/. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.113864.
  41. Basque J, Martel M, Leduc R, and Cantin AM. Lysosomotropic drugs inhibit maturation of transforming growth factor-β. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. V. olume 86, Number 9, September 2008.
  42. Grant WB, Lahore H, McDonnell SL, et al. Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths. Nutrients. April 2020, 12, 988; doi:10.3390/nu12040988.
  43. Staff. Full-dose blood thinners decreased need for life support and improved outcome in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. NIH. January 22, 2021.